What is meant by HIV?

HIV stands for “Human Immunodeficiency virus”. HIV is a virus that harmonizes to retroviruses (group of viruses). HIV harms your immune system by wrecking a sort of white blood cells, White blood cells are present in the blood that helps to prevent your body from infections or disease. This could lead you at chance for genuine contaminations and certain cancers.

HIV spread in Pakistan: -

Pakistan is the world’s most populous Muslim country, has finally joined the fight against the HIV / AIDS hazard. It has long been so far been widely regarded as a threat.
In Pakistan, HIV is recognized as a health concern it spread continuously and the number of cases is expanding. The direct utilize of drugs and the acknowledgment of non- marital sex in society has permitted the spread of HIV plague in Pakistan, particularly among injecting drug users (IDUs), male sex workers (MSW), female sex workers (FSW) and transgender sex workers (TSW) as well as repatriated migrant workers. HIV disease can lead to AIDS which can be a major health issue.

HIV cases in Pakistan: -

The HIV scourge in Pakistan is concentrated in key populations:
38.4% of people who inject drugs and have HIV, 5.6% male sex workers, 2.2% female sex workers, 7.5% transgender sex workers, 5.4% of men who have sex with men, and 7.1% transgender people.
The communities of IDUS and MSM are known to communicate through overlapping hazardous behaviors such as needle sharing, sexual intercut etc, which may encourage the spread of HIV contamination from IDUS to MSM or it’s on the contrary in fact such sweeping marvels have been observed in Eastern Europe, the Russian Federation and Central Asia, where the HIV plague, once concentrated among IDUs is now characterized by net worthy transmission in MSM and subsequently, common population.

Role of National AIDS Control Program Pakistan: -

With a noteworthy increment with in the number of reported HIV cases, to get it how assets have been allocated and what are the variables inside Pakistan’s recently presented intensify National AIDS Control Program. Has influenced the allocation. The reason of this consider was to distinguish the perceptions of decision makers about the assets allocation process insides Pakistan’s intensify National AIDS Control Program.
By all consider members or study participants HIV was not consider a priority issue and it was thought that outside subsidizing for the program due to foreign trade saves and benefactors organizations impact instead of nearby required, was accepted. The political impact of the federal government and donor organizations was thought to be a control of dispersions of funds inside the program. These impact occur in spite of the presence of a well- designed strategy for deciding the dispersion of public resources. Need of participation between the departments involved in decision making, broad need of specialized skills, need of information and ad hoc decision making environment were thought to decrease resistance to outside pressure.
Improvement of bound together program vision through an advice- giving process and advocacy is vital to get its objectives to be fulfilled, to upgrade program proprietorship and create agreement or make understanding almost how cash and effort need to be facilitated. Moving forward to enhancing public sector ability in planning and budgeting is fundamental not reasonable for the program, but in addition to diminish dependence on outside agencies for specialized rein forced. Rein-forcing accessible databases for viable decision making is required to create financial allotments based on veritable, instead of apparent needs. With a colossal portion of HIV program financing committed to public – private associations, it gets to be fundamental to make public sector capacity to oversee contracts, and monitor works out of the non - governmental segment.

What are the Symptoms of HIV?

HIV infection has three different stages and these stages have several symptoms. Not all the infected people have same symptoms. It depends on the individual and what stage of the infection they are in. it get more awful over time and inevitably overpowers your immune system.
There are three stages of HIV and their symptoms may experience by people:

1ST Stage: Acute HIV Infection

This stage is known as Acute HIV Infection. During this stage. Most of the people do not instantly know when they have been tainted with HIV. But they may appear symptoms within 2 to 4 weeks after being infected. Typically when your body’s immune system battles with each other. This is called acute (intense) retroviral syndrome or primary HIV infection.
The symptoms are comparative to those of other viral illnesses and sicknesses, they are every so often compared to the flue. They usually remain for a week or two and after that leave. Initial signs of HIV can include:
  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Aching muscles
  • Sore throat
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • Red rash without itching
  • Fever
  • Ulcer in mouth, genitals, anus, or esophagus
  • Other neurological symptoms
  • Chills
During the early stage of HIV some of the people do not have any symptoms at all. In the event that you have any of these symptoms and you will have been contact with somebody with HIV with in the last 2 to 4 weeks, go to a specialist and ask for an HIV test. In the event that you have got no symptoms but still think you have got been uncovered to the infection / virus, get tested.
Preliminary testing is necessary for two reasons: To begin with, at this stage, the level of HIV in your blood and real fluid is unusually high. This makes it particularly contagious. Second, initial treatment as before long as conceivable might offer assistance boost your immune system and ease your symptoms.

2nd Stage: Symptoms of Clinical Latency

At this stage, the infection still increases, but at exceptionally low levels. Individuals in this stage may not feel wiped out or have any symptoms. This stage is also called Chronic HIV infection.
Flue like Symptoms will go absent, after your immune system loses its fight with HIV. But inside your body there is a lot going on. Doctors called it asymptomatic period. In your body cells arrange the reaction of your immune system, these cells called CD4 T. Untreated HIV will murder CD4 cells and crush your immune system during this stage. Your doctor may utilize a blood test to see how numerous of these cells you have got. Without treatment, the number of CD4 cells will diminish, and you may be more likely to have another disease.
On the off chance that you take HIV pharmaceutical each day, precisely as suggested and gotten and carry an imperceptible viral burden, you'll be able secure your wellbeing and effectively secure your sexual partner. There is no hazard of transmitting HIV. But in case your viral stack is identifiable, you'll be able transmit HIV during this stage, indeed after you have no side effects. It is imperative to check along with your healthcare supplier regularly to urge your viral load checked.

3rd Stage: AIDS

If you are not going to HIV specialist and not starting your treatment at that time and have HIV from a long time, unfortunately the virus will weaken your immune system and you will progress to AIDS (Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome).
The third and the advance stage of HIV infection is AIDS. When the number of CD4 T-cells in your blood falls down 200, your immune system is rigorously harmed. You could be suffering from unscrupulous infections, which are more common and severe in those people who have weaker immune systems. A few of these are also known as "AIDS-defining diseases," such as Kapusi's sarcoma (a type of skin cancer) and pneumocystis pneumonia (a lung disease).
If you did not recognize that you have HIV infection, then you may soon realize your disease after you have some of these symptoms:
  • Breathing problems
  • Constantly feeling weary or tired
  • Diarrhea that is severe and persistent
  • Neck or back lymph nodes that are swollen
  • Bleeding or wounds that you can't explain
  • A fever that lasts more than ten days.
  • Some of the neurological symptoms such as memory misfortune, perplexity, confusion, balance issues, behavioral abnormalities, seizures, and vision alterations.
  • Profuse sweating at night.
  • For no apparent reason, you've lost weight.
  • Your skin has purple blotches that won't go away.
  • Infections with yeast in your mouth, throat, or vaginal area
Each of these symptoms and signs can be linked to a variety of illnesses. The only way of known for that you have HIV or not is the Testing. If you have HIV, your healthcare professional will determine if your HIV has progressed to stage 3 (AIDS) based on a set of medical criteria.

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